Septic Systems

Design of Septic Tank

There are several septic tank designs which operate the same way even though they may look different. Below are some facts surrounding the different types of septic tank designs.

Design of a Compartment Septic Tank

The effluent travels into the pipe on the left side which is then deposited in the main compartment of the septic tank. The denser sold particles will fall to the bottom while the particles that are less dense, as well as grease and oil will rise to the surface. The bacteria that live in the septic tank will digest the organic matter that has settled at the surface and the bottom of the tank.

The bacteria will digest most of the organic matter that is present in human effluent; however, it will not be able to digest it all. The undigested material is called “sludge” and it will settle at the bottom of the tank.

The sludge is later removed during the routine maintenance of the septic tank. Grease along with other materials will remain on top of surface of the water. The water that is in the tank is not pure as it still contains organic matter this water will be filtered by the drain field. When additional water enters the septic tank from your house the water level inside the tank will rise causing the gray water to leave through the effluent pipe and make its way to the septic drain field.

The top of the septic tank comes with three access ports. The port that is located in the middle is used by the pumping service when the tank needs empting. The remaining two ports are located above the incoming and outgoing pipe. Both provide a secondary access in the event one of the pipes should become clogged.

Depending on the design of the septic tank it may also come with two different compartments. The reason for this design is so that the sludge will remain predominantly to one side of the tank therefore preventing it from going into the effluent pipe and into the drainage fields. If there is enough sludge buildup that it enters the drainage tube you will begin to experience major issues with the septic tank, including septic tank failure.

Design of Septic Tank Drain Field

As I mentioned above, the grey water exits the septic tank and goes to the drain field, which is a pipe system. This pipe system is perforated thus allowing grey water to exit into the special soil bed made from crushed rocks and other materials. Should the sludge from the septic tank find its way to the drainage field it will clog the perforated tubes and damage them this in turn will cause the entire septic system to fail.

Design of Septic Tank Grey Water Filter

The grey water which exits from the perforated tubes into the drainage field may find itself on the surface in small quantities where it then evaporates or is filtered through the ground. As the water passes through the different layers of the earth below the drain field it is cleaned and by the time it reaches the ground water it is drinkable.

People who use water from a well should have their water tested on a regular basis for bacteria levels. If there is an increase in the bacteria present in the water this means that the septic system is falling and steps should be taken immediately to have the situation rectified.

There are several popular designs of septic tanks, the most popular of which is the aerator septic tank. The design is similar to that of the traditional septic tank design the major difference is that this system introduces air into the grey water inside the septic tank.

This system allows aerobic bacteria to digest the waste matter instead of anaerobic bacteria, which are found in the traditional designs. It’s a known fact that aerobic bacteria work much faster than anaerobic bacteria, so aerobic septic systems are much more efficient.